The Power of Photos for Protesting

By Carson Peters, PhotovoiceWorldwide Summer Intern

We’ve seen the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests. However, without protest photos, our “framing” would be different.  

Black Lives Matter is an internationally recognized grassroots social movement that advocates for justice for the Black community. Founded in 2013 by three Black female organizers, the movement affirms the lives and humanity of all Black persons, reducing systemic prejudices, mobilizing communities to be agents of change, and capitalizing on local power. Visit this link to learn more https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/.  

Core to the BLM mission is the use of nonviolent, civil disobedient protesting. This purposeful strategy creates resistance, and can lead a powerful collective voice to influence decisions that lead to social change (Hanna 2016; Ghreichi 2016). By using these approaches and frameworks, BLM encourages dialogue and raises awareness to influence policy through mass mobilization and organization, political interventions, and other reform. BLM represents a holistic movement that empowers individuals to use their voices for change. 

It is important to note the global focus of BLM. These protests are occurring worldwide and not in a vacuum. The Black Lives Matter Global Network and The Black Lives Matter Foundation, Inc., which are housed within BLM, seek to mobilize the global community. BLM has actively mobilized a global outcry for social justice (Patrick 2020) via the advancement of human liberty and dignity worldwide. Here are some protest photos from around the world, published in a photo journal in The Atlantic, curated by Alan Taylor. Check here to see more.  

Thousands of people demonstrate in Cologne, Germany, on June 6, 2020, to protest against racism and the recent killing of George Floyd by police officers in Minneapolis.” Martin Meissner / AP. Taken from “Images From a Worldwide Protest Movement” by Alan Taylor in The Atlantic.  
“In Seoul, South Korea, people march to protest during a solidarity rally over the death of George Floyd on June 6, 2020.” Ahn Young-joon / AP. Taken from “Images From a Worldwide Protest Movement” by Alan Taylor in The Atlantic.  
“Demonstrators protest against racism and hate crimes during a Black Lives Matter demonstration in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 7, 2020.” Silvia Izquierdo / AP. Taken from “Images From a Worldwide Protest Movement” by Alan Taylor in The Atlantic.  

Protest photos show a multitude of BLM themes, including: emotion, engagement, documentation, meaning, support, and purpose. 

Here are some themes from photographers who have recently photographed BLM protests. 

Emotion: Photos illuminate feelings. A photographer in Minneapolis indicates, “throughout the day, I was photographing: joy, mourning, and reflectance; and at the end of the night, I was photographing anger, frustration, and turmoil” (Bell, The Guardian 2020). Another photographer indicated that BLM photos illustrate mistrust, hopelessness, and determination (Speltz 2016). These photographs convey emotions that are expansive and diverse. Images are both valuable and powerful because they instantly guide emotional responses, even before logic, and can motivate action (Brehman, 2016; Wakeland, 2013). 

A protester is silhouetted against flames from a burning building
“A protester is silhouetted against flames from a burning building” By Bell, Brandon. (2020). [photography]. Minneapolis, Minnesota. From The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests.”  

Photos capture moments in time and space by serving as historical documentation—of meetings, marches, and demonstrations. These protest photos “document, preserve, inspire, attest, and provide evidence” to showcase moments in time (Speltz 2016). BLM protest photos will inform citizens, activists, and scholars far into the future.   

Mourners carry George Floyd’s casket into the memorial service
“Mourners carry George Floyd’s casket into the memorial service.” Bell, Brandon. (2020). [photography]. Minneapolis, Minnesota. From The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests.”  

Photos encourage change agents and mobilizers to take action. Speltz (2016) mentions that, protest photos “convey immediacy and inspire activism.”  

Hundreds march to protest the deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and others
Hundreds march to protest the deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and others.  Jarrus, Sylvia. (2020). [photography]. Detroit, Michigan. From The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests 

Photos portray meaning and share stories, where photographers act as “translators of these times and the teachers of our stories” (The Guardian 2020). Photos communicate messages, both personal and societal. Photos from BLM protests convey meaning through their content, structure, or composition (Brehman, 2016). 

Crossing the Brooklyn bridge
Marchers cross the Brooklyn bridge.  Ngala, Flo. (2020). [photography]. New York. From The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests.” 

The purposes of protest photos are versatile and multi-pronged: some photos “tell stories and illuminate the joys and struggles of everyday people working for change, whereas others reveal how local people and their communities are suffering” (Spetlz 2016). Photos may be raw, and real, while others may be uplifting. Photos may be authentic, or somewhat manufactured or staged. The purpose of protest photos encompasses many reasons, but the intention remains within the purview of the photographer. 

On the first night of protests, Louisville Metro police officers don riot gear and create a line between protesters and the Hall of Justice.
On the first night of protests, Louisville Metro officers don riot gear and create a line between protesters and the Hall of Justice.”  Cherry, Jonathan. (2020). [photography]. Louisville, KY. The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests.”

Photos can demonstrate support of social movements. Protest photos can be deployed through social media as a tool, either by reposting photos using #BLM or sharing photos from #BlackoutTuesday on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. These social media-based BLM actions swept across local platforms and allowed supporters across the globe to express solidarity with the movement.   

Protest photos create a visual narrative emblazoned in time and space 

Protest photos are a visual time capsule. BLM protest photos are situated within a social context. While these photos are captured in real time, they are placed in a historical archive of knowledge and social evolution. Such photos not only enhance the visibility of social movements and historical events, but also act as symbols. Protest photos shared via various outlets and sources tell a multitude of stories, conveying “the intensity of the struggle, but also, the massive resistance to change” (Speltz 2016). Through these stories, symbols emerge which “serve as ‘frames’ that “construct narratives about politics, society, and identity” (Spratt, 2008). Using the mechanisms of stories and symbols, photos reinforce agency by allowing mobilizers or change agents to reform the narrative and communicate their experiences of solidarity and resistance. These photos “generate a new narrative surrounding race and police brutality,” where the tactics of re-use and repetition reshape collective memories” (Brehman 79, 2016). Thus, protest photos have the propensity to influence a shift in attitudes, ideologies, and policies.  

A teenage protester displays her home-made sign to officers at a blockade at the City Hall
“Teenage protesters displays their home made-signs to officers at a blockade at the City Hall”. Cherry, Jonathan. (2020). [photography]. Louisville, KY. The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests” 
A local Black Lives Matter organiser leads the march towards the heavily kitted police line.
“A local Black Lives Matter organiser leads the march toward the heavily kitted police line”.  Cherry, Jonathan. (2020). [photography]. Louisville, KY. The Guardian in “Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests”  

Stay tuned for Part 2 of this blog, where I explore how Photovoice frameworks and theories apply to BLM protest photos. Check out more BLM protest photos here

Sources Consulted: 

NA. (2020). Black Lives Matterhttps://blacklivesmatter.com/about/ 

Bell, Brandon et. al.(2020). Capturing the cry for change: photographers on the BLM protests.  

The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/jun/12/capturing-the-cry-for-change-photographers-on-the-blm-protests 

Brehman, Caroline. (2016). An Analysis of the Iconic Images from the Black Lives Matter Movement.” Elon University. https://www.elon.edu/u/academics/communications/journal/wp-content/uploads/sites/153/2018/05/07_Brehman.pdf 

Coscarelli, Joe. (2020). #BlackoutTuesday: A Music Industry Protest Becomes a Social Media Moment. New York Times.https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/02/arts/music/what-blackout-tuesday.html 

Ghreichi, Christine.  (2016)Black Lives Matter and Social Justice.” University of Minnesota. https://cla.umn.edu/news-events/story/black-lives-matter-and-social-justice 

Hanna, Philippe. (2016). Conceptualizing social protest and the significance of protest actions to large projects. The Extractive Industries and Society.  
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2015.10.006 

Liebenberg, Linda. (2018). “Thinking Critically About Photovoice: Achieving Empowerment and Social Change International Journal of Qualitative Methods. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918757631 

Patrick, Stewart. (2020). “Black Lives Matter—for Social Justice, and for America’s Global Role”. World Politics Review. https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/28839/black-lives-matter-for-social-justice-and-for-america-s-global-role 

Speltz, Mark. (2016). How Photographs Define the Civil Rights and Black Lives Matter Movements. Time Magazine. https://time.com/4429096/black-lives-matter-civil-rights-photography/ 

Taylor, Alan. (2020). Images From a Worldwide Protest Movement. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2020/06/images-worldwide-protest-movement/612811/ 

What is your purpose?

By Stephanie Lloyd

Last week members of the PhotovoiceWorldwide community, from around the globe, joined together to talk about “purpose” in their lives. Each person shared a photo (or two) that they had selected and talked about their vision of purpose. Their photos represented responses to the following questions:

  • How do you define purpose?
  • What drives your purpose?
  • Where have you found purpose lately?
“Purpose is a work in progress – something I am always working towards but never sure of arriving.” photo by Laura Lorenz

The conversation moved from outdoor spaces to family to food. Some of the outside photos shared included: hiking spaces, a lake, and a mural on an empty city street. For the participants, these natural images represented connection and a way to decompress in nature to find purpose. One photo shared was a way to talk about finding purpose through a beautiful 5-day hiking journey from Bologna to Florence.

“On the Way of Gods, from Bologna to Florence by foot.” photo by Laura Si​rabella

One participant shared a photo of herself on her first day of teaching as she held hands with her daughter on her first day of Kindergarten. Another participant shared a picture taken of two photos of her grandfather as a child and a grown man, and part of a camera, as he was a photographer, like her. These interesting reflective photos seem to show us that purpose can cross generations.

Prompted by a photo of Jamaican Dukunu (Blue Draws), a corn meal snack wrapped in banana leaves, the group talked about how food brings us together as a connector. Other participants compared the Jamaican dish to Columbian or Costa Rican Tamales, Venezualan Arepas, Chilean humitas, and Polish galumpke. Through our discussion, we decided that “joining around the table is communal, and bridges many gaps.”

At the end of the conversation, we reflected on how photos can be used as a journaling tool, and can also inspire long conversations that teach us. At PhotovoiceWorldwide, we offer these photo sharing conversations as a way for people to shift from formal Zoom meetings and talk through current highlights and concerns, share and learn with others, and inspire positive action. We hope you can join us for the next one at the end of June! 

“We are in it together!” photo by Stephanie Lloyd

Small Course Size Means Focusing on Participants’ Interests

by Stephanie Lloyd

Photo by Anna Shvets from Pexels

Last week we wrapped up another successful online ‘Talking with Pictures’: Photovoice course!

During this session, learners chose “belonging to a community” as the photo-taking theme for the hands-on exercise. Their photos and captions related to the reality of living in different areas of the United States during COVID-19. Later, while analyzing their photos and bringing in social exchange theory, the discussion touched on costs and rewards of closing public spaces and the other measures taken to ensure social distancing and reduce infection.

A nice thing about smaller course size, is that it allows learners to bring in their own research interests and focused questions for facilitators and participants to explore together. May course participants prompted further research and discussion on these topics:

  • Examples of using photos in a primary way to explore their own lives as an auto-ethnographic approach as a learning practice for graduate students. See Elizabeth Chaplin’s chapter “The Photo Diary as Autoethnographic Method” in the SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods, edited by Eric Margolis and Luc Pauwels (2012).
  • Options for collecting, organizing, and storing Photovoice Data using photo databases, qualitative analysis software (e.g. Atlas.ti or Nvivo), VoiceThread, Box, or Excel.

As of today, over 140 individuals throughout the U.S. and around the world have taken the foundations course ‘Talking with Pictures’: Photovoice, and learned how to successfully develop and manage a photovoice project.

We still have seats available for our June and July courses. Visit: http://www.photovoiceworldwide.com/training to join us!

Photovoice with Holga Cameras: Create Social Change with a Click

By Stephanie Lloyd

On May 12, PhotovoiceWorldwide was excited to host a webinar for its ‘Talking with Pictures’: Photovoice course alumni. In the webinar, “Photovoice with Holga Cameras: Create Social Change with a Click,” Lisa Powers talked about her experiences using Holga cameras and working with Dr. Caroline Wang on photovoice projects in the 1990s and early 2000s. 

Here are some things we learned! 

HOLGA CAMERAS 

In most of her work, Lisa has used Holga cameras in her own picture taking and teaching. These types of cameras allow photographers to create multiple exposures, where two or more images are layered over each other. The 120mm film also allows a photographer to take pictures without advancing the film the entire way, which yields a panoramic image. Because these plastic cameras only have basic light and aperture settings, the images they produce sometimes include light leaks and other mysterious and playful shadows. Using these cameras for photovoice projects allows participants to focus on composition and what emotions an image evokes, rather than more technical aspects of photography.  

Holga is a medium format 120 film camera, made in Hong Kong, known for its low-fidelity aesthetic. The Holga’s low-cost construction and simple meniscus lens often yield pictures that display vignetting, blur, light leaks, and other distortions. 
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF THE PHOTOVOICE PROCESS 

Photovoice projects are about the photographer sharing their point of view, and how they see or experience something. Lisa says: “Along the way, art starts to shape us.” Making images may change the way we see or how we view a certain condition. All photographs from a project may not end up on the wall at the show, but all are important because they add to the discussion. When you do the hard work of organizing a photovoice project you are not always sure how it will turn out but somehow it all comes together.  

A signature feature of photovoice, as co-creators Caroline Wang and Mary Ann Burris designed it, is to reach policymakers. Although a project may have important implications for participants, first and foremost is giving them a voice to raise awareness of issues to those who can make change. One example Lisa described was the impact of the Language of Light photovoice project on a vote to move the homeless shelter further outside of town and next to a dump. The photovoice exhibit and media coverage meant a different outcome, as voters and politicians chose instead to build a new shelter two blocks from the old one. Secondary to bringing light to an important issue, is to promote critical dialogue and empower individuals. Lisa described how good it can feel for a participant who is homeless, for example, to be seen as a photographer and an artist, and not just as a homeless person.  

Another important part of photovoice is to allow ample time for reflection and to encourage documenting assets or strengths, not just challenges or problems. After participants take their photos, it is important to make sure they have enough time to write captions, discuss, and reflect. Lisa recommends that the project leader design the timeline with this aspect in mind. And finally, the facilitator will want to be mindful of keeping copies of the photographs produced during a project (and of course remember to obtain consent to share them in other places). 

Lisa advancing the film and showing the back of a Holga camera.
Q&A WITH LISA POWERS 

In some ways, the Holga seems to be able to “alter” or portray reality differently. Do you encourage participants to use filters or change photographs in other ways?  

Giving participants a chance to portray what they think, and their own reality is most important. If the participant wants to use filters to express who they are and what they see around them, then the project leader should let them do so.   

In your project in Romania, did you have an interpreter or co-collaborator who spoke Romanian? (or maybe you speak it?!) 

Yes, there have been several projects that included translators, including the one in Romania. When you have interpreters, the pace is slower and its harder to get the nuances. Luckily, art is universal, everyone can express themselves and participate in a project.   

How much time did you spend with project participants explaining how to work with light and other photographic techniques? 

In many projects, participants are on the street with mentors and photographers, talking about light elements and experimenting with light. Having photographer mentors helps provide one-on-one instruction in taking photos, in addition to the group work.   

Other than “fake panorama,” are there other distortions possible using the Holga? 

The Holga image possibilities might be endless. Photographers can play with the places on the negative where there is darkness and bring a new image in. For example, you could double expose so that where a person’s face is, there is another object. With the Holga camera, a lot happens by surprise, and it is important to be open to the element of surprise and not have too much of an expectation of control.

What is a favorite example of stakeholder response to photovoice participants’ presentations that you have been involved in? 

In my work in Solano county with the ‘Welfare to Work’ mothers, the project funders were county staff workers/social workers and others who were constantly dealing with whether this was a valid expectation. The photovoice project produced photographs and a slideshow to present to the community, that gave them a lot more information. Sometimes anecdotal evidence is more powerful and easier to understand than empirical and quantitative data. The photographs and text relieved the county workers because they conveyed positive impact of the program from participants’ perspectives.   

Could you comment on your experience using photovoice in a developing country or with a disadvantaged population?  

Since the Holga isn’t a fancy camera (and it’s plastic) it’s considered pretty basic. This camera was thought of as an art tool. Because it is plastic, participants refer to it as a toy camera, and find it less intimidating than other cameras. We felt comfortable giving it to homeless individuals because it did not look expensive or put people at risk of the camera being stolen. It is something to think about when choosing a camera for a project.  

Could you comment on your process of getting film developed? 

Twenty years ago, there weren’t many digital options. So, although film and film processing can be expensive and the film must be kept cool, film was our best option. However, with Medium format you can look at the negatives and do a free write from them, and then only scan the negatives and print the images you want to use for the show, which can reduce the cost. Although digital has changed all this and the darkroom printer business has dried up for now, it might come back as a competitive option later as film photography gains fine-art status.  

Do you recommend projects start with group photo taking? 

Yes, I always recommend mentors of all types (e.g. volunteer photographers, writers, grad students, and people in the community) to be a part of projects. There is a lot of affirmation and encouragement when mentors are present. Photo mentors can be the eyes that help the facilitator point out the positive and document the workshop as it happens. It is helpful to have people take photos of students in action and the process.  

Lisa Powers taking a selfie with her Holga camera during the webinar.

Can I Do a Photovoice Project Remotely? Yes, You Can!

By Stephanie Lloyd and Laura Lorenz

Are you planning a photovoice project in this midst of these uncertain and stressful times? Were you ready to do a photovoice project and now are re-considering – because your participants can’t go outside, get their project cameras, or meet with you face-to-face? No need to put your project on hold! Photovoice is a highly dynamic and adaptable method. Consider making adjustments that will still provide valid data for interpretation and analysis. Although your ideal photovoice approach may no longer be an option, here are some suggestions for how to adjust your projects during these uncertain times. 

Alternatives to photo-taking

Photovoice photos do not need to be taken for your project specifically. Allow participants to use photos that have been taken previously or by someone else. Right now, while people are being asked to stay at home, encourage participants to look through old photo albums, phone camera rolls, or even on the internet to select photos to discuss with you and others. The important point here is that the photos respond to your project’s prompt or questions, and represent the genuine thoughts, experiences and feelings of your participants.

Participatory visual methods – create art

Because of its many benefits, photovoice may be the ideal method for your study. In light of current events, you can’t give project cameras to your participants, or provide them with photography training or support they may need. Instead, ask your participants to create visuals – drawings, photographs, murals, or videos – to discuss with you (Lorenz and Kolb, 2009). Drawings and other art representations may be helpful to represent feelings and ideas that cannot be captured via photograph during the current times.

Participant drawing from a photovoice project done in South Africa.
Mdantsane Township, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 2001.

Online or virtual focus group sessions

Online or virtual focus groups have increased in popularity as a way to: capture ideas and opinions from a wider demographic, allow greater accessibility for certain populations, and minimize costs and scheduling challenges. Using online software (such as Zoom, GoToMeeting, Join.Me, Google Hangouts, etc.) individuals can participate in an online focus group for free. As long as they are able to access a computer and reliable internet, web conferencing tools allow your participants to talk to each other, see the moderator (and each other if they want), and view a shared picture or document on screen. With online focus groups you have access to the recording and can create a transcript at the end of the conversation, which can support data interpretation and analysis. Make sure you ask participants for permission to record the conversation, whether audio or video!

Online closed groups

When working across global time zones, it might be helpful to use a private Facebook Group, Slack Channel, or other online tool that allows participants to post their photos and respond to prompts at a time that is easiest for them. These channels allow you to work at a different pace as participants access the project “channel” any time they wish, not only in “real time.” With these “channels,” you can specify a time frame (at least a week) for participants to take pictures, share them on the closed group, and post comments. A longer time period allows for more interaction, for example follow-up questions from you (or other group members), and additional photo-taking prompts to narrow down or delve deeper into themes. In their study using Facebook and Photovoice with English teachers, Rubrico and Hashim (2014) concluded that: “The participants found Facebook to be (a) an innovative, fun, and non-threatening venue for engagement, (b) a convenient and broader learning space unbounded by time, and (c) an efficient medium of communication and bonding.”

Jill Nault Connors and Laura Lorenz co-facilitated a photovoice project with individuals living with anxiety disorder that had an online component (Connors et al, 2019). As face-to-face photovoice time was limited, the project used a Slack channel to work together between their face-to-face meetings. Focus group discussions during project time were recorded, and draft captions derived from these conversations were uploaded to Slack along with their related photos. Participants could visit Slack any time to revise their captions, revise their photos, and comment on each other’s work. Connors et al (2019) provides a description of the project’s methods including the online component.

Participant photograph from a project using Slack.

This picture represents the majority of days that I have with anxiety in that there are many days where the steps in front of me look insurmountable. …the bad days with anxiety help me to really appreciative the days where I am stress free. On the good days I am at the top of these steps looking down at the beautiful view.
–Participant, Indiana University, Emergency Medicine, Leveling the Playing Field for Anxiety Disorders, 2018

VoiceThread is another format that groups can use to view each other’s work and use one of five formats to leave comments on selected photos. These formats include microphone, webcam, text, phone, and audio-file upload. The advantage of using VoiceThread is offering participants opportunities to comment, to uploaded photos, and to engage in theme development asynchronously. In her work with young people with IDD exploring experiences and advice related to enrolling in college, Maria Paiewonsky has used photovoice and VoiceThread to enable students throughout Massachusetts to connect with each other and share their experiences. The students developed print and online materials to inspire their peers to consider enrolling in college (Paiewonsky, 2011; Paiewonsky & Lorenz, 2016).

Participant photograph and caption from a project using VoiceThread.

Check out these photovoice project links from Maria Paiewonsky – for both projects participants and facilitator/lead investigator worked remotely using photovoice and other participatory visual methods: Housing First Evaluations: BRIDGES: https://wabridges.weebly.com/ and Mental health and housing:  CT MHTG: https://ctmhtghealth.weebly.com/results.html . Be sure to check out the methods tabs for these excellent examples of project websites.

In creating a safe space for young people to participate in photovoice online, Lauren Lichty and colleagues (Lichty et al, 2019) worked with participants over several months to encourage critical thinking. They adopted an online approach to enable students in widely separate locations to participate in a project together, save project resources, and be culturally appropriate. They also incorporated an online evaluation component into their project. They used a WordPress blog and also used private off-blog communicates for additional support. Over the several weeks of the project, these methods allowed participants to reflect deeply on root cause analysis of problems and make sense of their contexts. Lichty et al (2019) provide an excellent description of their online approach.

Things to keep in mind

Overall, the answer is “yes” to doing photovoice remotely – allowing alternatives to photo-taking, creating art, using “real time” meeting software, and using closed online groups – in the correct context.  The biggest thing to keep in mind when adapting your photovoice project to a remote or virtual meeting space, is to make sure all participants will have equal access and opportunity. So, when thinking about some of the amazing tech solutions out there, be mindful of the population you are working with and the necessary requirements (e.g. computer, high-speed internet, a camera phone with a data plan) that may not be standard for individuals living in different contexts. Additionally, support participation with a “test run” or provide training on the technology, so that everyone is comfortable prior to the actual data collection time frame. Consider trying the technology in a pilot effort with one or two people to start, and expand as you and your participants gain in confidence. And perhaps most important of all – have fun and enjoy your conversations with participants, however they take place!

Finally, it is important to remember that despite our best efforts, not every photovoice project will result in outcomes we anticipated, whether or not they have a remote component. Participants might need encouragement to take photos and they may or may not remember what they purpose of the photo mission is. They may struggle with the technology options you have decided on. Despite these potential challenges, every photovoice project results in increased awareness of participants’ perceptions,  through initial conversations, brainstorming a list of potential photos and even through a discussion of the challenges to complete the work.

Your Turn

Do you have other ideas or questions about conducting photovoice projects remotely? Have you made adjustments to photovoice so you can work remotely? Feel free to reply below or reach out to us at info@photovoiceworldwide.com.

References

Connors, JD, Conley, MJ, & Lorenz, LS. (2019). Use of Photovoice to engage stakeholders in planning for patient-centered outcomes research. Research involvement and engagement, 5, 39-39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40900-019-0166-y   

Lichty, L., Kornbluh, M., Nortensen, J., and Foster-Fishman, P. (2019). Claiming Online Space for Empowering Methods: Taking Photovoice to Scale Online. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice: Promoting Community Practice for Social Benefit. 10(3), September. https://www.gjcpp.org/en/article.php?issue=33&article=201

Lorenz, L.S. and Kolb, B. (2009), Involving the public through participatory visual research methods. Health Expectations, 12: 262-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-7625.2009.00560.x 

Lorenz, LS and Paiewonsky, M. (2015). Chapter 13 “Sharing the results of visual methods research: Participation, Voice, and Empowerment,” Disability and Qualitative Inquiry: Methods for Rethinking an Ableist World (pp 209-220). (Ed. Berger, RJ and Lorenz, LS). London: Ashgate. https://www.routledge.com/Disability-and-Qualitative-Inquiry-Methods-for-Rethinking-an-Ableist-World/Berger-Lorenz/p/book/9781472432896

Nykiforuk, Candace & Vallianatos, Helen & Nieuwendyk, Laura. (2011). Photovoice as a Method for Revealing Community Perceptions of the Built and Social Environment. The International Journal of Qualitative Methods. https://doi.org/10.10.1177/160940691101000201.

Paiewonsky, M. 2011. “Hitting the Reset Button on Education: Student Reports on Going to College.” Career Development for Exceptional Individuals 34 (1): 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885728811399277.

Paiewonsky, M., Hanson, T. & Dashzeveg, O., and Western Massachusetts Student Researchers (2017). Put Yourself on the Map: Inclusive Research With and By College Students with Intellectual Disability/Autism. Student Reports: A Think College Transition Brief. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Boston, Institute for Community Inclusion. https://pyotm.weebly.com/

Rubrico, Jessie Grace & Hashim, Fatimah. (2014). Facebook-Photovoice Interface: Empowering non-native pre-service English language teachers. Language Learning and Technology. 18. 16-34. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/44378/1/18_03_action.pdf